Tropical Medicine & Infectious disease Division2022-06-21T08:33:47+00:00
1606, 2022

Virucidal effect of povidone iodine on COVID-19 in the nasopharynx: A structured summary of a study protocol for an open-label randomized clinical trial

Project started: 20th January, 2020
Project End: 03th May, 2021
Publication status: Published
Brief description: General: To assess the virucidal efficacy of povidone iodine (PVP-I) on COVID-19 virus located in the nasopharynx Specific: i. To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine (PVP-I) to removeCOVID-19 virus located in the nasopharynx ii. To assess the adverse events of PVP-I TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single-center, open-label randomized clinical trial with a 7-arm parallel-group design. The study will be conducted at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. All RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases aged between 15-90 years with symptoms for the past 4 days will be screened. Those who give informed consent, are willing to participate, and accept being randomized to any assigned group will also be considered for final inclusion. Patients with known sensitivity to PVP-I aqueous antiseptic solution or any of its listed excipients or previously diagnosed thyroid disease or who had a history of chronic renal failure: stage ≥3 by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) or had acute renal failure (KDIGO ≥stage 2: creatinine ≥2 times from the baseline) or patients who required invasive or noninvasive ventilation or planned within the next 6 hours were considered for exclusion. Moreover, lactating or pregnant women will also be restricted to include here. This RCT consist of seven arms: Arm-1 (intervention group): will receive povidone iodine (PVP-I) nasal irrigation (NI) at a concentration of 0.4% Arm-2 (intervention group): will receive PVP-I nasal irrigation at a concentration of 0.5% Arm-3 (intervention group): will receive PVP-I nasal irrigation at a concentration of 0.6%. Arm-4 (intervention group): will receive PVP-I nasal spray (NS) at a concentration of 0.5%. Arm-5 (intervention group): will receive PVP-I nasal spray at a concentration of 0.6%. Arm-6 (placebo comparator group): will receive distilled water through NI Arm-7 (Placebo comparator group): will receive distilled water through NS The intervention arms will be compared to the placebo comparator arms. Other supportive and routine care will be the same in both groups. The primary outcome is the proportion of cases that remain COVID-19 positive following the intervention. It will be assessed from 1 minutes to 15 minutes after the intervention. Any occurrence of adverse effects following the intervention will be documented as a secondary outcome. The assignment to the study (intervention) or control (comparator) group will be allocated in equal numbers through randomization using random number generation in Microsoft Excel by a statistician who is not involved in the trial. The allocation scheme will be made by an independent statistician using a sealed envelope. The participants will be allocated immediately after the eligibility assessment and consenting procedures. This is an open-label clinical trial, and no blinding or masking will be performed. A total of 189 confirmed cases of COVID-19 will be randomized into seven groups. In each arm, a total of 27 participants will be recruited. The current trial protocol is Version 1.5 from September 10, 2020. Recruitment began September 30, 2020 and is anticipated to be completed, including data analysis by February 28, 2021. The trial protocol has been registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov on September 16, 2020. NCT Identifier number: NCT04549376 . The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.

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1506, 2022

Quality of life of COVID-19 recovered patients in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) quickly surged the whole world and affected people’s physical, mental, and social health thereby upsetting their quality of life. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 positive patients after recovery in Bangladesh. This was a study of adult (aged ≥18 years) COVID-19 individuals from eight divisions of Bangladesh diagnosed and confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) from June 2020 to November 2020. Given a response rate of 60% in a pilot study, a random list of 6400 COVID-19 patients was generated to recruit approximately 3200 patients from eight divisions of Bangladesh and finally a total of 3244 participants could be recruited for the current study. The validated Bangla version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to assess the QoL. Data were analyzed by STATA (Version 16.1) and R (Version 4.0.0). All the procedures were conducted following ethical approval and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The mean scores of QoL were highest for the physical domain (68.25±14.45) followed by social (65.10±15.78), psychological (63.28±15.48), and environmental domain (62.77±13.07). Psychological and physical domain scores among females were significantly lower than the males (p<0.001). The overall quality of life was lower in persons having a chronic disease. Participants over 45 years of age were 52% less likely to enjoy good physical health than the participants aged below 26 years (AOR: 0.48, CI: 0.28-0.82). The quality of life of employed participants was found 1.8 times higher than the unemployed (AOR: 1.80, CI: 1.11-2.91). Those who were admitted to hospitals during infection had a low QoL score in physical, psychological, and socials domains. However, QoL improved in all aspect except the psychological domain for each day passed after the diagnosis. These findings call for a focus on the quality of life of the COVID-19 affected population, with special emphasis given to females, older adults, unemployed, and people with comorbidities.

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1506, 2022

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: Multi-drug resistant Typhoid fever (resistant to previously used chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) has been commonly described in the South East Asia region and a recent report suggests that the salmonella typhi have reduced response to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid-resistant). The optimum treatment protocol for this type of serovar has not been established. This study compared different antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever which was conducted in the medicine ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and outdoor setting in private practice in Dhaka metropolitan city, Mymensingh and Sylhet town from January 2017 to December 2017. Bangladeshi adults with uncomplicated typhoid fever were included in this an open-label randomized controlled trial. Ciprofloxacin (20mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days), azithromycin (20mg/kg/day for 14 days), and Cefixime (16mg/kg/day for 14 days) were compared. Of the 81 enrolled patients, 62 were eligible for analysis (61 S. enterica serovar Typhi, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A). Of the S enterica serovar Typhi isolates, 88.7% (55/62) were MDR and 93.5% (58/62) were nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). The clinical cure rate was 62% (13/21) with ciprofloxacin, 71% (15/21) with Cefixime, and 85% (17/20) with azithromycin (p=0.053). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) fever clearance time for patients treated with azithromycin (5.8 days [5.1 to 6.5 days]) was shorter than that for patients treated with cefixime (7.1 days [6.2 to 8.1 days]) and ciprofloxacin (8.2 days [7.2 to 9.2 days]) (p<0.001). All three antibiotics were well tolerated. A 7-day course of azithromycin can be successfully used in uncomplicated typhoid fever due to isolates of MDR S enterica serovar Typhi.

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1506, 2022

Leishmaniasis in Dhaka Medical College-experience of three years

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: The People’s Republic of Bangladesh has been working to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis or Kala-azar cases since there was a memorandum of understanding signed between neighboring countries in 2005. As a part of the elimination activity, 44 cases of Kala-azar were diagnosed and treated in the regional referral center Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) during the last three years, which is reported here. Confirmed leishmaniasis cases were included. Patients attending this specialized center with different demographic characteristics and varied presentations with laboratory findings were reviewed and recorded in a structured case record form. Ethical clearance was obtained prior to starting the study. A total of 44 patients with leishmaniasis were reviewed. Approximately 89% (n = 39) were New Kala-azar (NKA), 7% (n = 3) were Relapse Kala-azar (Relapse KA), only one case (2%) was Kala-azar Treatment Failure (KATF) and Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) for both. The mean age of presentation was 32 years. Forty percent of patients had houses made by mud, 26% by tin shed, and the rest lived in buildings and semi-buildings. The predominant clinical features were fever (90.9%), pallor (88.6%), splenomegaly (81.8%) and hepatomegaly (68.2%). rK39 was positive in 90.7% of cases, and 94.4% of cases were positive for LD bodies on splenic aspirate. Of all, 90.90% were treated with Inj. Liposomal amphotericin B and 9.10% with the combination of Inj. Liposomal Amphotericin B and Inj. Miltefosine. Moving forward to the elimination of leishmaniasis from Bangladesh, the study highlights the status, characteristics and treatment of the disease in the country.

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1506, 2022

Efficacy and safety of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh: a real-life experience

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Publication status: Published
Brief description:Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is the drug of choice in Bangladesh to eliminate the burden of visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, a fatal protozoan parasitic disease if left untreated. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of a single-dose (10 mg/kg) LAmB in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment among the visiting children and adults in a tertiary care setting. This prospective study includes 11 children and 19 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of kala-azar (total 30 cases). Intravenous infusion of LAmB (10 mg/kg body weight) was given to all of the patients. Clinical assessments were conducted during treatment, before hospital discharge, and on days 30 and 180 after treatment. Efficacy was estimated in terms of initial cure (at day 30) and the final cure (at 180 days). All information was recorded in a preformed case record form and analysis was performed in SPSS 22. The mean age was 27.13 ± 18.04 years (3–65) with male predominance (60%). Significant regression of spleen size was found following treatment with LAmB at 30 days and 180 days follow up visit (p < 0.05 for all). Overall, rate of initial cure was 90% (n = 27) (child 90.9% vs 89.47% adult) and final cure was 96.66% (n = 29) (child 100% vs 94.73% adult). Fourteen adverse events were recorded mostly including fever and/or shivering (85.71%). No case relapsed or were referred either due to management or Severe Adverse Event (SAE). In real-life experience, the LAmB treatment for visceral leishmaniasis is as safe and effective for treatment of kala-azar patients.

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1506, 2022

Comparison of clinical manifestation of dengue fever in Bangladesh: an observation over a decade

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: The clinical presentation of dengue fever had been observed to change with time since its first outbreak in 2000 in Bangladesh. This report showed the clinical presentation of the 2019 outbreak in Bangladesh along with its comparison to previous outbreaks witnessed in this region. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka city. A total of 553 laboratory-confirmed and 194 probable dengue cases were interviewed. The clinical manifestation of the confirmed cases of the current outbreak was compared with three of the outbreak reports retrieved from the databases. R version 3.6.3 was used for data analysis. Among the confirmed cases, two-thirds were male (63.2%) and the average age was 27(± 11) years. Positive tests for NS1 and IgM were present in 99.6% (n = 525/527) and 82.6% (n = 38/46) of the cases, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was present in 66.1% of cases. Fever (100%) was common for all. Gastrointestinal (GIT) features, including abdominal pain (86.5%), anorexia and/or vomiting (69.6%), and Diarrhea (> 3 motions/day) (26.2%) were more frequent than typical rash and other pain symptoms. Hypotension was present in approximately a quarter of patients (25%). GIT features (anorexia, nausea, and/or vomiting) and hypotension were more common among adult participants while bleeding manifestation (melena and vaginal bleeding, p = 0.009 & 0.032) was more frequent in pediatric patients. Compared to outbreaks of 2008, 2016, and 2018, increasing trends in GIT symptoms e.g. anorexia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea were observed. While a negative trend in hemorrhagic manifestations (skin rash, melena, and conjunctival hemorrhage/hemorrhagic sclera) and arthralgia/joint pain were found. The present outbreak was noticeably characterized by GIT symptoms and hypotension in addition to the typical clinical features like rash and pain symptoms. An increasing trend in GIT features and decreasing trend in hemorrhagic manifestations was noted over the last decade of dengue outbreaks.

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1506, 2022

Clinical spectrum and predictors of severity of dengue among children in 2019 outbreak: a multicenter hospital-based study in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: The mosquito-borne arboviral disease dengue has become a global public health concern. However, very few studies have reported atypical clinical features of dengue among children. Because an understanding of various spectrums of presentation of dengue is necessary for timely diagnosis and management, we aimed to document the typical and atypical clinical features along with predictors of severity among children with dengue during the largest outbreak in Bangladesh in 2019. We conducted a cross-sectional study between August 15 and September 30, 2019. in eight tertiary level hospitals in Dhaka city. Children (aged < 15 years) with serologically confirmed dengue were conveniently selected for data collection through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics, and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze data. Among the 190 children (mean age 8.8 years, and male-female ratio 1.22:1) included in the analysis, respectively 71.1 and 28.9% children had non-severe and severe dengue. All children had fever with an average temperature of 103.3 ± 1.2 F (SD). Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common associated feature, including mostly vomiting (80.4%), decreased appetite (79.5%), constipation (72.7%), and abdominal pain (64.9%). Mouth sore, a less reported feature besides constipation, was present in 28.3% of children. Atypical clinical features were mostly neurological, with confusion (21.3%) being the predominant symptom. Frequent laboratory abnormalities were thrombocytopenia (87.2%), leucopenia (40.4%), and increased hematocrit (13.4%). Age (AOR 0.86, 95%CI 0.75–0.98, p = 0.023), mouth sore (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.06–6.96, p = 0.038) and a decreased platelet count (< 50,000/mm3) with increased hematocrit (> 20%) (AOR 4.94, 95%CI 1.48–17.31, p = 0.01) were significant predictors of severity. Dengue in children was characterized by a high severity, predominance of gastrointestinal symptoms, and atypical neurological presentations. Younger age, mouth sores, and a decreased platelet with increased hematocrit were significant predictors of severity. Our findings would contribute to the clinical management of dengue in children.

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1506, 2022

WILD syndrome: A rare presentation of primary lymphedema, generalized warts and immune deficiency diagnosed in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief Description: WILD syndrome is a rare disease characterized by warts, impaired cell mediated immunity, primary lymphedema and anogenital dysplasia. Our patient who is a 13 year old boy presented with swelling of right lower limb since birth. The swelling gradually involved both upper limbs and right side of his face. The swelling over the right lower limb grew to such an extent that he has been unable to do his daily activities for the last 3 years and warty skin lesions over his whole body for the last 5 years. At the same time he has swelling of his external genitalia and warty lesion around the anus. He has recurrent painless swelling of his abdomen with scanty micturition. On examination, he was mildly anemic, non-icteric, non-pitting odema of right leg, normal vital parameters, right sided pleural effusion, pericardial effusion and ascites, no organomegaly. Swelling and distortion of right lower limb with nodular lesions over the right leg, generalized hyper and hypopigmented verrucous papules and paques over whole body, swelling of the glans and flat warts around the anus.  His investigations revealed leucopenia, chylous pleural effusion, lymphedema of right lower limb with venous incompetency and normal arterial supply, reduced CD4 and CD8 T cell count, normal immunoglobulin levels, negative ICT for filarial, histology of skin lesion revealed elephanthiasis verrucosa nostra, and anogenital dysplasia with a large number of koilocytes.

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1406, 2022

Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of a symptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19-positive patients in Bangladesh

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Brief description: As of August 15, 2020, Bangladesh lost 3591 lives since the first Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case announced on March 8. The objective of the study was to report the clinical manifestation of both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patients. A online-based cross-sectional survey was conducted for initial recruitment of participants with subsequent telephone interview by the three trained physicians in 237 adults with confirmed COVID-19 infection in Bangladesh. The study period was between 27 April to 26th May, 2020. Consent was ensured before commencing the interview. Collected data were entered in a predesigned case report form and subsequently analyzed by SPSS 20. The mean age at presentation was 41.59±13.73 (SD) years and most of the cases were male (73%). A total of 90.29% of patients reside in urban areas. Among the positive cases, 13.1% (n = 31) were asymptomatic. Asymptomatic cases were significantly more common in households with 2 to 4 members (p = .008). Both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients shared similar ages of presentation (p = 0.23), gender differences (p = 0.30), and comorbidities (p = 0.11). Only 5.3% of patients received ICU care during their treatment. The most frequent presentation was fever (88.3%), followed by cough (69.9%), chest pain (34.5%), body ache (31.1%), and sore throat (30.1%). Thirty-nine percent (n = 92) of the patients had comorbidities, with diabetes and hypertension being the most frequently observed. There has been an upsurge in COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh. Patients were mostly middle-aged and male. Typical presentations were fever and cough. Maintenance of social distancing and increased testing are required to meet the current public health challenge.

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1406, 2022

Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the 2019 dengue outbreak in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: Dengue fever shows a broad range of clinical presentations worldwide. Here we report on our clinical findings during the 2019 dengue outbreak in one of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. A total of 747 suspected dengue cases (553 confirmed and 194 probable) were interviewed with a pro forma case record form. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 20.0. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Dhaka Medical College. The mean age of the dengue cases was 27 y and approximately two-thirds were male. Positive tests for NS1 and anti-dengue immunoglobulin M antibody were present in 91.9% and 59.4% of the cases, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was present in 69% of cases and fever was present in 99.1% of cases. Gastrointestinal (GI) features, including anorexia and/or vomiting (69.4%), abdominal pain (39.8%) and diarrhoea (25.6%), were more prevalent than typical rash and pain symptoms. Hypotension was present in approximately one-quarter of patients (25.4%). Probable and confirmed dengue cases have shown similar clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. The 2019 outbreak of dengue fever in Bangladesh was characterized by increased presentation with GI features. Recognition of this trend would permit early diagnosis and proper management of patients.

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