Social Development division2022-06-21T09:08:52+00:00
2306, 2022

All Research Related Course

 

 

Mentor
Dr. Mohammad Jahid Hasan

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Why do we use it?

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

 

Where does it come from?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of

2206, 2022

Prescription Modifying Marketing Factors: A Survey among the Clinicians in Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: It was aimed at finding out the important factors those influence the prescription preparation of doctors during their daily life consultancy. It was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey conducted by purposive, convenient sampling. 200 registered practicing doctors from different regions of Bangladesh were interviewed with the prepared self reporting questionnaire from February 2013 to October 2013. Questionnaire was prepared and finalized after pretesting. The measurement was made on the basis of 5 point Likert scale and data were analyzed by using SPSS 16 version and Microsoft Excel®. It was found that doctors consider company image, brand availability, regular promotion, easy brand name, scientific information, and personal experience related confidence with high preference. Promotional tools and representatives’ improvisation, low price of brands are relatively less sensitive to doctors. This study provides only selected aspects on pharma marketing; larger study may reveal the scenario more precisely.

Full Text Link
2206, 2022

Mental Health of the COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: The mental health aspect of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Bangladesh has remained less focused and has not been addressed properly. The objective of the study was to assess the levels of anxiety and depression in COVID-19 patients. We adopted a mixed online and telephone-based survey using Google Forms. Recruitment was performed through a snowball sampling approach. The Google Form was initially circulated in Facebook to identify interested participants. Then, three trained physicians interviewed the online responders over telephone for a period spanning from April 2020 to June 2020. Two well-known questionnaires, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), were used for the assessment of anxiety and depression, respectively. Here, the severity of anxiety was classified with the standard thresholds: minimal or none (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14) and severe (>15) for the GAD-7. Depression severity score: 0-4 was considered as none or no depression, 5-9: mild, 10-14: moderate, 15-19: moderately severe, 20-27 was for severe depression. A total of 237 patients were finally analyzed. The mean age ±SD of the patients was 41.59±13.73 years. Most of them were male (73%) and lived in urban areas (90.29%). Half of the patients were unemployed, and 17.7% admitted loss of job due to lockdown. The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression was 55.7% and 87.3%, respectively. The mean GAD-7 score was 5.79±4.95, and the mean PHQ-9 score was 5.64±5.15. Among the depressive patients, 3% had minimal depression, 38.4% had mild depression, 32.1% had moderate depression, 11.8% had moderate depression, and 2.1% had a severe depression. Similarly, 37.1%, 10.5% and 8% had mild, moderate and severe levels of anxiety, respectively. Nearly half of the study population (47.7%) was suffering from both depression and anxiety. Living in urban area was an independent predictor for depression (OR 3.882; CI: 1.249-12.069). Considering the high comorbid burden, the mental health issues of these patients need to be addressed and reinforced to the existing health system on a priority basis.

Full Text Link
2206, 2022

Medicine promoting marketing factors: Survey among medical representatives in Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: This study was aimed at gaining marketing insight by analysis of factors that influence medical representatives’ drug promotion and thus the prescription preparation of physicians. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to October, 2013 among medical representatives by purposive convenient sampling. A structured questionnaire with measurements on 5-point Likert Scale was provisioned. Data input, format, transformation and analysis were performed using SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: A total of 245 medical representatives were enrolled who were affiliated with a pharmaceutical company. Representatives’ improvisation, easy brand availability, regular promotion and company image are the factors having most influence. Easy brand name, low price and international certification of the company were on lower side. Conclusion: This study contains a brief summary of experience of medical representatives and insights of this paper will be helpful for marketers to ensure greater effectiveness and economic efficiency from drug prescribing.

Full Text Link
2206, 2022

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of Rohingya refugees with pre-existing health problems in Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Mental disorders among refugees have been well explored in several studies. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of the pandemic on refugee populations are widely lacking. This study was designed to examine the impact of the current pandemic on the mental health of Rohingya refugees living in Bangladesh. This longitudinal study involved a convenience sample of 732 Rohingya people with pre-existing health problems who lived in the Kutupalong refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The first recruitment was performed on 5 July 2019 (prepandemic visit) and assessed the health status of refugees using the Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15). The follow-up survey was conducted on 10 November 2020, approximately 15 months later, during the pandemic. A total of 342 Rohingya refugees who completed the initial survey participated in the follow-up survey. A newly developed COVID-19 Impact on Quality of Life (COV19-QoL) scale was used alongside the RHS-15 scale during the second survey. Ethical measures were taken in compliance with the current Declaration of Helsinki. The analysis was performed using SPSS 26. A total of 342 Rohingya refugees completed this longitudinal survey. The average age of participants was 32.25 ± 14.01 years (SD), and the predominant age group was ≤ 30 years (n = 207, 60.5%). Most of the participants were female (n = 209, 61.1%). A significant increase in stress was noted from the prepandemic to pandemic periods, as determined by the RHS-15 scale (RHS-15 Part I: 22.96 ± 8.43 vs. 46.72 ± 1.87, p < 0.001; and RHS-15 Part II: 4.43 ± 1.59 vs. 6.91 ± 1.49, p < 0.001). The mean COV19-QoL score of the participants was 4.47 ± 0.15 (out of 5), indicating a perceived negative impact of the pandemic in their lives. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex (β = 0.604, p = 0.017) and COV19-QoL score (β = 2.537, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with higher perceived distress among participants. Rohingya refugees experienced a significant deterioration of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Alongside other socioeconomic, environmental, and political factors, the pandemic itself might have been a crucial contributor to this negative trend.

Full Text Link
2106, 2022

Health problems among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs) admitted to the Medicine ward of Cox’s Bazar Medical College Hospital

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs) or Rohingya refugees are one of the vulnerable groups suffering from different kinds of health problems but have been less reported yet. Therefore, the study was designed to delineate the health problems among FDMNs admitted to Cox’s Bazar Medical College Hospital. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Medicine ward, Cox’s Bazar Medical College Hospital, for a six-month period following approval. Rohingya refugees who were admitted during the study period were approached for inclusion. Informed written consent was ensured prior to participation. A structured questionnaire was used during data collection. Collected information was recorded in case record form. A total of 290 subjects were interviewed. Analysis was performed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20.

The mean age of the participants was 48.76 ± 18.67 years (range: 16–91), with a clear male predominance (60.7%). Family size ranged 6–8. All of the participants reported at least one of the illnesses. Of all, 29.66% patients had disease of the respiratory system, and 26.9% had disease of the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system. Accidental injury or injury due to electrocution or thin falls or snake bites was present in 10.4% of the cases. Among the single most common diseases, COPD (20%) was the most frequently observed, and the rest of them were chronic liver disease (13.1%), pulmonary TB (5.5%), ischemic stroke (5.5%), CAP (4.1%), acute coronary syndrome (3.4%), thalassaemia (3.4%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (3.4%). Among the top 6 diagnosed diseases, PTB was more common in elderly individuals (p = 0.29). The disease pattern was similar across the sexes among the refugees except community acquisition pneumonia (CAP), which was commonly observed among males (p = .004). Considering different age groups, genitourinary problems were more common in males aged >60 years, and rheumatology and musculoskeletal problems were equally affected in females aged between 40 and 60 years. COPD, CLD and CAP were the most prevalent diseases in FDMN patients who attended the Medicine ward of Cox’s Bazar Medical College Hospital. Further exploration is warranted before any policy making and comprehensive plan.

Full Text Link
2106, 2022

Constraints and current practices of menstrual hygiene among Rohingya adolescent girls

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Although half of Rohingya refugees are women and adolescent girls, the sexual and reproductive health issues of these vulnerable groups are still unexplored. The aim of this study was to review and describe menstrual hygiene management (MHM) along with the existing challenges of MHM among Rohingya adolescent girls. This concurrent mixed methods study was conducted among adolescents aged 13–18 years living in Kutupalong refugee camps in Ukhiya, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Camp-based surveys along with focus group discussions were performed for data collection. The findings of a total of 12 FGDs and 101 survey responses were included for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis, and thematic analysis was considered for the qualitative data. Approximately one-fourth of the adolescent girls (28.71%) had premenstrual knowledge. Only 8% had “Good” knowledge, and 12% had a basic understanding. Half of the women used cloths during menstruation, while others (20.79%) used homemade clean pads, disposable sanitary pads (17.82%), and used only underwear without absorbance (10.89%). The frequency of changing sanitary pads varied, but the majority of respondents (48.51%) changed padding at least once daily. Common disposal places were inside the toilet (30.69%), open spaces (17.82%), dustbins (6.93%) and water sources (3.96%). An inadequate and irregular supply of sanitary napkins or absorbents leads to poor MH practices. Limited cleaning and disposal facilities, lack of privacy in camps or informal settlements, confined and crowded places and nonsupportive environments in the camp were also factors affecting the use of pads and disposal. Family and cultural beliefs, stigma, restrictions, and fear of sexual violence were also noted within typical day-to-day activities during menstruation. The provision of adolescent-friendly wash facilities, appropriate information and adequate menstrual supplies is needed to improve the MH response in an emergency context. Despite some limitations, this study could lead to future changes relative to MH for women and adolescents in Rohingya.

Full Text Link
2106, 2022

Sociodemographic profile, clinical characteristics, anxiety, and depression of 74 patients infected with COVID-19: first report from Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: The pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has cost a large number of lives and is causing substantial mental stress among people. We conducted a study to identify the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and prevalence of anxiety and depression among confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey using a preformed questionnaire adapted in Google form was conducted for data collection. The form was shared along with a brief introduction and rationale via Facebook, Twitter, Facebook Messenger, Viber, and What’s App. Formal ethical clearance was taken from the Biomedical Research Foundation, Bangladesh. Informed consent was ensured before participation. Results: Seventy-four patients with COVID-19 who had an average age of 42.59±14.43 years with male predominance (77%) were included. A total of 29.7% were doing health-care related jobs, and 14.9% lost their jobs due to COVID-19. Patients had a median income of BDT 30000. Of all, 87.8% of patients were symptomatic and presented with fever (77%), cough (58.8%), breathlessness (24.3%), myalgia (24.3%), sore throat (21.6%), fatigue (17.6%), nausea and/or vomiting (12.2%), headache (12.2%), runny nose (9.5%), chest pain (9.5%), diarrhea (8.1%), ARDS (2.7%), stuffy nose (2.7%), conjunctivitis (1.4%) and oral ulcer (1.4%). Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 60% and 52.9%, respectively. Among the participants, 11.4% had only anxiety, 4.3% had only depression and 48.6% had both. Conclusion: Patients were mostly middle aged, male and healthy workers. Typical presentations were fever and cough. Nearly two-thirds of the patients had either or both anxiety and depression.

Full Text Link
2106, 2022

Health System Resilience for a Concurrent Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Dengue: A Response From Bangladesh

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Bangladesh, a tropical country, has been facing periodic outbreaks of dengue since 2000. The country suffered its largest outbreak last year, with >100 000 confirmed cases and 120 deaths. These outbreaks usually reach the peak during monsoon and last till December and cause a considerable burden on our low-budgeted health care delivery system in terms of increased bed occupancy, higher outdoor and indoor consultations, and increased workload on health service providers. Even the diagnostic kits might fall short, as evident from previous outbreaks.1 Besides, this makes hospitals preoccupied with noncritical patients, which hampers the critical patients’ timely management. This year, 792 dengue cases were reported until November 11, 2020, with an expected spike in the number to follow.2 On the other hand, the existing health care facilities are already overburdened with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A total of 393 000 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 5723 deaths had been identified so far. Historically, concurrent outbreaks are not uncommon. The coincidence of dengue with chikungunya as well as influenza A H1N1 pandemic were previously documented. Concurrent infections of COVID-19 and dengue was already reported in Bangladesh3 and also in few other dengue-endemic countries.4 Although COVID-19 shows a classic respiratory symptom, it shares some common characteristics and laboratory profile with dengue as both can elicit a similar immune response in the body.5 As a result, a concurrent infection may spread insidiously among the general population while the nation focuses on COVID-19 alone. The simultaneous presence of both diseases in a person might cause diagnostic and management difficulty leading to fatal consequences. The coincident outbreak of dengue on top of the COVID-19 pandemic may cause havoc on the health care delivery system of Bangladesh if the preparation is not carried out in advance. To prevent increased dengue incidence on top of the COVID-19 pandemic, Bangladesh needs to take immediate action. Policymakers should collaborate with epidemiologists, entomologists, virologists, infectious disease specialists, health care professionals, and nongovernmental organizations in this regard. Public health measures in reducing the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing or lockdown strategy, have been ineffective in our setting. Prevention strategies involving mosquito control and bite reduction failed in the past. Hence, the health care facilities should be ready to tackle the concomitant surge in dengue and COVID-19 cases. An organized effort of both public and private health care is therefore warranted. Bangladesh’s health care authority has already recommended testing all patients with fever for both COVID-19 and dengue and opened the dedicated COVID-19 hotlines for receiving dengue-related calls at district and upazila levels. Despite those measures, the recent escalating number of patients causes fearful apprehension about the health system’s preparedness. Therefore, authorities should increase testing facilities, designate COVID plus wards in the hospitals, and increase the number of beds in critical and intensive care units as early as possible. Intensified surveillance should be prioritized. A combination of these extraordinary measures is expected to strengthen the existing health system against this dual outbreak and could be applied in other countries sharing a similar social context.

Full Text Link
2106, 2022

Healthcare Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Personal Protective Equipment for the Prevention of COVID-19

Project started:
Project End:
Publication status: Published
Brief description:  Adequate knowledge, positive attitude, and proper practice of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers are necessary to get protection from COVID-19 infection. But this area is yet to be explored. Hence, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) among healthcare workers, along with a survey of the possible determinants. For this cross-sectional study, online and offline surveys were conducted among a sample of 393 healthcare workers from five different districts of Bangladesh. A validated self-administered questionnaire comprising five sections (socio-demography, work-related information, knowledge, attitude, and practice) was used for data collection. Multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression was applied to find significant factors associated with good attitude, and practice using SPSS version 25.The average age of the 393 participants was 28.9±5.2 years with a male-female ratio of one. Of them, 99.5% (n=391) had good knowledge, 88.8% (n=349) had positive attitude and 51.7% (n=203) had good practice regarding PPE. Results revealed that being a physician and living at home were significantly associated with a positive attitude. While being a non-physician, having lower education, working in private hospitals, and using office transport were associated with good practice regarding PPE. The findings demonstrated that the healthcare workers had an overall good knowledge and a positive attitude but a poor practice regarding PPE. This study also highlighted the factors influencing KAP towards PPE that must be addressed in future education, awareness, and counseling programs.

Full Text Link