Non-communicable disease Division2022-06-21T06:01:06+00:00
1606, 2022

Prevalence and predictors of diabetes distress among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a facility-based cross-sectional study of Bangladesh

Project started: 9t th March, 2020
Project End: 10th July, 2021
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Diabetes distress (DD) is common and has considerable impacts on diabetes management. Unfortunately, DD is less discussed and frequently underestimated. This study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of DD in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted at several specialized endocrinology outpatient clinics in Bangladesh from July 2019 to June 2020; 259 adults with T2DM participated. Participants’ DD and depression were measured using the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS-17) and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. DDS-17 scores ≥2 and PHQ-9 scores ≥10 were the cutoffs for DD and significant depression, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 50.36 (±12.7) years, with the majority (54.8%) being male; their median (IQR) duration of diabetes was 6 (3-11) years. Among the study participants, 52.5% had DD (29.7% moderate and 22.8% high DD). The prevalence of emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, and interpersonal distress was 68.7, 28.6, 66, and 37.7%, respectively. Depression was present in 40.5%; 28.6% of the participants had DD and depression. The total DDS-17 score was positively correlated with the PHQ-9 score (r = 0.325, p < 0.001). Rural residence (OR 1.94), presence of any diabetic complication (OR 3.125), insulin use (OR 2.687), and presence of major depression (OR 4.753) were positive predictors of DD. In contrast, age ≥ 40 years at diabetes diagnosis (OR 0.047) and diabetes duration of > 10 years (OR 0.240) were negative predictors of DD (p < 0.05 in all instances). The prevalence of DD in our setting is notably high; DD and depression frequently overlap. Screening for diabetes distress may be considered, especially in high-risk patients.

Full Text Link
1606, 2022

Effect of telmisartan and vitamin E on liver histopathology with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial

Project started: 6 June, 2019
Project End:10 January, 2022
Publication status: Published
Brief description: To compare the effect of telmisartan and vitamin E on liver histopathology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients. This noninferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1 year. Fatty liver patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS) ≥ 5 (in liver biopsy) were selected. All methods were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients who received telmisartan and vitamin E were denoted as Group-T and Group-E, respectively. Forty patients >18 years old were assigned and divided into two groups (20 in each group). Histological improvements were primary outcome measures. Significant improvement in NAS score was noted in both groups (Group E [GE]: 6 ± 0.8 to 4.36 ± 1.4; P = 0.00 and Group T [GT]: 5.6 ± 0.7to 4.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.03). Fibrosis score improved from 1.6 ± 0.5 to 1.5 ± 0.5 in GE and from 1.7 ± 0.9 to 1.5 ± 0.7 in GT (P = 0.67 and 0.42, respectively). Steatosis improved in GE from 2.07 ± 0.6 to 1.14 ± 0.66 (P = 0.00) and in GT from 1.94 ± 0.57 to 1.56 ± 0.8 (P = 0.05). Lobular inflammation improved from 2.0 ± 0.4 to 1.6 ± 0.5 in GE (P = 0.02) and from 1.9 ± 0.3 to 1.8 ± 0.4 in GT (P = 0.58). Ballooning score in GE decreased from 1.9 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.5 (P = 0.03), and in GT, it reduced from 1.9 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.5 (P = 0.19). NAS improvement was similar in GE (1.6 ± 1.2) and GT (0.6 ± 1.1; P = 0.07) when controlled for weight reduction. Telmisartan was similar to vitamin E in improving the histology of NASH patients.

Full Text Link
1606, 2022

Effect of Weight Reduction on Histological Activity and Fibrosis of Lean Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Patient

Project started: 13 th June, 2019
Project End: 30 April, 2021
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Weight reduction has evidenced benefit on attenuation of histological activity and fibrosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but there is scarcity of data for lean NASH subgroup. We have designed this study to compare the effects of weight reduction on histological activity and fibrosis of lean and non-lean NASH. We have included 20 lean and 20 non-lean histologically proven NASH patients. BMI < 25 kg/m2 was defined as non-lean. Informed consent was taken from each subject. All methods were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Moderate exercise along with dietary restriction was advised for both groups for weight reduction. After 1 year, 16 non-lean and 15 lean had completed second liver biopsy. Age, sex, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT), Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was similar in both groups. Steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and fibrosis was similar in the two groups. In lean/non-lean group, any amount of weight reduction, ≥ 5% weight reduction and ≥ 7% weight reduction was found in respectively 8/11, 5/6 and 2/6 patients. In both lean and non-lean groups, weight reduction of any amount was associated with significant reduction of steatosis, ballooning and NAS, except lobular inflammation and fibrosis. In both groups, weight reduction of ≥ 5% was associated with significant reduction in NAS only. However, significant improvement in NAS was noted with ≥ 7% weight reduction in non-lean group only. Smaller amount of weight reduction had the good benefit of improvement in all the segments of histological activity in both lean and non-lean NASH.

Full Text Link
1606, 2022

Breast Cancer with Paraneoplastic Syndrome in a 72 Year Old Male Patient

Project started:16 th August,2020
Project End: 17 th July, 2021
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Breast cancer in male is rare which accounts about 1% of all malignant breast neoplasm cases. Since paraneoplastic syndrome is unusual with male breast cancer, very few reported cases are found. A72- year-old gentleman presented with proximal myopathy in all four limbs was referred to Dr. Sirajul Islam Medical College and Hospital in April 2017. He had generalized wasting with reduced tone and reflexes. Planter responses were normal with intact sensory. There were typical Heliotrope rash bilaterally. In background, he had history of radical mastectomy due to stage IIA ductal carcinoma of left breast 7 years back. Three years later, he was found to have multiple metastases in lung and liver, however, deliberately discontinued chemotherapy after first dose. Currently he is on Tamoxifen. Two months back, he was diagnosed to have brain metastasis. Also his serum sodium level was low with low urine osmolality. Considering his background, we diagnosed him dermatomyositis with peripheal neuropathy & SIADH as paraneoplastic presentation of breast malignancy. Despite of normal CPK and NCV, we treated him with steroid as dermatomyositis can present with normal CPK. His myopathy improved after 2 weeks of steroid treatment. Fluid restriction increased his serum sodium level. The aim of reporting this case is to aware physicians about the aggressive nature of male breast cancer, its orthodox paraneoplastic presentation and to differentiate neuropathy from myopathy so that early treatment can improve the outcome.

Full Text Link
1606, 2022

Association of hyperlipidemia with breast cancer in Bangladeshi women

Project started: 12th February, 2020
Project End: 21 March 2021
Publication status: Published
Brief description: The association of circulating lipids with breast cancer is being debated. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between abnormal plasma lipids and breast cancer risk in Bangladeshi women. This was a case-control study designed using a population of 150 women (50 women in each group). The lipid levels of women with breast cancer were compared to the lipid levels of women with benign breast disease (control group 1) and healthy women (control group 2). Study samples were collected from the Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, for a period of 1 year. Ethical measures were in compliance with the current Declaration of Helsinki. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 26. All of the comparison groups shared similar sociodemographic, anthropometric and obstetric characteristics. The incidence of dyslipidemia was significantly higher in breast cancer patients (96%) than in healthy women (84%) and patients with benign breast disease (82%) (P < 0.05 for both). The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol among the breast cancer patient group were significantly higher than those among both benign breast disease patients and healthy women (P < 0.05), except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Adjusting for other factors, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (> 23) [OR 53.65; 95% CI: 5.70–504.73; P < 0.001] and total cholesterol (mg/dl) (≥ 200) [OR 16.05; 95% CI: 3.13–82.29; P < 0.001] were independently associated with breast cancer. Total cholesterol and BMI are independent predictors of breast cancer risk among Bangladeshi women.

Full Text Link
1606, 2022

Adherence to inhalers and associated factors among adult asthma patients: an outpatient-based study in a tertiary hospital of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Project started: 20th July, 2021
Project End: 12th April, 2022
Publication status: Published
Brief description: Adherence to inhaler medication is an important contributor to optimum asthma control along with adequate pharmacotherapy. The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported adherence levels and to identify the potential factors associated with non-adherence to the inhalers among asthma patients. This facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the medicine outpatient department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital from November 2020 to January 2021. A total of 357 clinically confirmed adult asthma patients were interviewed. Inhaler adherence was measured using the 10-item Test of Adherence scale (TAI).. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to express the socio-demographic of the patients and predictors of poor adherence to inhaler. A substantial number of participants were non-adherent (86%) to inhaler medication. Patients non-adherent to inhaler medication are often younger (23.15, 95% CI 3.67–146.08), lived in the rural area (23.28, 95% CI 2.43–222.66), less year of schooling (5.69, 95% CI 1.27–25.44), and belonged to the middle income (aOR 9.74, 95% CI 2.11–44.9) than those adherent with the inhaler. The presence of comorbidities (12.91, 95% CI 1.41–117.61), prolonged duration of inhaler intake (5.69, 95% CI 1.22–26.49), consulting non-qualified practitioners (13.09, 95% CI 3.10–55.26) were the significant contributor of non-adherence. Despite ongoing motivation and treatment, non-adherence to inhalation anti-asthmatic is high and several factors have been found to contribute. Regular monitoring and a guided patient-centered self-management approach might be helpful to address them in long run.

Full Text Link
1006, 2022

Knowledge of Stroke and its Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors: A Hospital Based Study 

Project started: 30 September 2020
Project End: 30 March 2023
Publication status: Project ongoing
Brief description: Significant variations observed in stroke incidence, risk factors and sufferings between high & resource poor countries. Considering lack of study in our country perspective, the study was designed to assess the knowledge of stroke and its risk factors among stroke survivors in Bangladeshi population. This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Department of Neurology in Uttara Adhunik Medical College & Hospital (UAMCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Patients aged >18 years who were admitted with stroke (Ischemic and hemorrhagic) were included in the study. Before enrollment informed consent was ensured. Total 50 patients were interviewed and assessed. Separate case record form was used during data collection. Final analysis was done by SPSS 22.00 version software. A ‘good’ knowledge of stroke was defined by correct answer to ≥4 out of 7 questions about location, cause, risk factor, warning sign, treatment, complication and prevention of stroke. Among 50 stroke survivors, mean age was 58.34±12.90 (SD) years. Male-female ratio was 1.08:1. Overall 78% patients had good knowledge of stroke. Brain was correctly identified as center of stroke by 52% stroke survivors and disturbance of blood supply to brain as a cause of stroke was recognized by 12%. Stress was the most common risk factor identified (50%). At least one warning sign was identified by 76% stroke survivors. Seventy-four percent stroke survivors knew that they have to be taken to nearest health facility and if possible, in hospital where neurological care is available. Only 4% knew about the golden hour of taking the stroke patient. On average knowledge about treatment, complication and prevention of stroke was good. Stroke knowledge was not significantly associated with demographic and socio-economic profile of stroke survivors. More than two thirds of the patients had knowledge regarding stroke and its risk factors but no uniform pattern of knowledge is noticed.

Full Text Link