Health service and policy Division2022-06-21T10:39:05+00:00
2206, 2022

Prescription Modifying Marketing Factors: A Survey among the Clinicians in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: It was aimed at finding out the important factors those influence the prescription preparation of doctors during their daily life consultancy. It was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey conducted by purposive, convenient sampling. 200 registered practicing doctors from different regions of Bangladesh were interviewed with the prepared self reporting questionnaire from February 2013 to October 2013. Questionnaire was prepared and finalized after pretesting. The measurement was made on the basis of 5 point Likert scale and data were analyzed by using SPSS 16 version and Microsoft Excel®. It was found that doctors consider company image, brand availability, regular promotion, easy brand name, scientific information, and personal experience related confidence with high preference. Promotional tools and representatives’ improvisation, low price of brands are relatively less sensitive to doctors. This study provides only selected aspects on pharma marketing; larger study may reveal the scenario more precisely.

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2206, 2022

Medicine promoting marketing factors: Survey among medical representatives in Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: This study was aimed at gaining marketing insight by analysis of factors that influence medical representatives’ drug promotion and thus the prescription preparation of physicians. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to October, 2013 among medical representatives by purposive convenient sampling. A structured questionnaire with measurements on 5-point Likert Scale was provisioned. Data input, format, transformation and analysis were performed using SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: A total of 245 medical representatives were enrolled who were affiliated with a pharmaceutical company. Representatives’ improvisation, easy brand availability, regular promotion and company image are the factors having most influence. Easy brand name, low price and international certification of the company were on lower side. Conclusion: This study contains a brief summary of experience of medical representatives and insights of this paper will be helpful for marketers to ensure greater effectiveness and economic efficiency from drug prescribing.

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2106, 2022

Health System Resilience for a Concurrent Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Dengue: A Response From Bangladesh

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Publication status: Published
Brief description: Bangladesh, a tropical country, has been facing periodic outbreaks of dengue since 2000. The country suffered its largest outbreak last year, with >100 000 confirmed cases and 120 deaths. These outbreaks usually reach the peak during monsoon and last till December and cause a considerable burden on our low-budgeted health care delivery system in terms of increased bed occupancy, higher outdoor and indoor consultations, and increased workload on health service providers. Even the diagnostic kits might fall short, as evident from previous outbreaks.1 Besides, this makes hospitals preoccupied with noncritical patients, which hampers the critical patients’ timely management. This year, 792 dengue cases were reported until November 11, 2020, with an expected spike in the number to follow.2 On the other hand, the existing health care facilities are already overburdened with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A total of 393 000 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 5723 deaths had been identified so far. Historically, concurrent outbreaks are not uncommon. The coincidence of dengue with chikungunya as well as influenza A H1N1 pandemic were previously documented. Concurrent infections of COVID-19 and dengue was already reported in Bangladesh3 and also in few other dengue-endemic countries.4 Although COVID-19 shows a classic respiratory symptom, it shares some common characteristics and laboratory profile with dengue as both can elicit a similar immune response in the body.5 As a result, a concurrent infection may spread insidiously among the general population while the nation focuses on COVID-19 alone. The simultaneous presence of both diseases in a person might cause diagnostic and management difficulty leading to fatal consequences. The coincident outbreak of dengue on top of the COVID-19 pandemic may cause havoc on the health care delivery system of Bangladesh if the preparation is not carried out in advance. To prevent increased dengue incidence on top of the COVID-19 pandemic, Bangladesh needs to take immediate action. Policymakers should collaborate with epidemiologists, entomologists, virologists, infectious disease specialists, health care professionals, and nongovernmental organizations in this regard. Public health measures in reducing the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing or lockdown strategy, have been ineffective in our setting. Prevention strategies involving mosquito control and bite reduction failed in the past. Hence, the health care facilities should be ready to tackle the concomitant surge in dengue and COVID-19 cases. An organized effort of both public and private health care is therefore warranted. Bangladesh’s health care authority has already recommended testing all patients with fever for both COVID-19 and dengue and opened the dedicated COVID-19 hotlines for receiving dengue-related calls at district and upazila levels. Despite those measures, the recent escalating number of patients causes fearful apprehension about the health system’s preparedness. Therefore, authorities should increase testing facilities, designate COVID plus wards in the hospitals, and increase the number of beds in critical and intensive care units as early as possible. Intensified surveillance should be prioritized. A combination of these extraordinary measures is expected to strengthen the existing health system against this dual outbreak and could be applied in other countries sharing a similar social context.

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2106, 2022

Healthcare Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Personal Protective Equipment for the Prevention of COVID-19

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Publication status: Published
Brief description:  Adequate knowledge, positive attitude, and proper practice of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers are necessary to get protection from COVID-19 infection. But this area is yet to be explored. Hence, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) among healthcare workers, along with a survey of the possible determinants. For this cross-sectional study, online and offline surveys were conducted among a sample of 393 healthcare workers from five different districts of Bangladesh. A validated self-administered questionnaire comprising five sections (socio-demography, work-related information, knowledge, attitude, and practice) was used for data collection. Multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression was applied to find significant factors associated with good attitude, and practice using SPSS version 25.The average age of the 393 participants was 28.9±5.2 years with a male-female ratio of one. Of them, 99.5% (n=391) had good knowledge, 88.8% (n=349) had positive attitude and 51.7% (n=203) had good practice regarding PPE. Results revealed that being a physician and living at home were significantly associated with a positive attitude. While being a non-physician, having lower education, working in private hospitals, and using office transport were associated with good practice regarding PPE. The findings demonstrated that the healthcare workers had an overall good knowledge and a positive attitude but a poor practice regarding PPE. This study also highlighted the factors influencing KAP towards PPE that must be addressed in future education, awareness, and counseling programs.

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